Bruce V. Kiefer is currently Principal Engineer, Intellectual Property Manager and Long Rolling Marketing Manager for Primetals Technologies USA LLC, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. He joined the company in 1986, having worked previously in positions at the Research Laboratories of Bethlehem Steel Corporation in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. He holds Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in applied mechanics and a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering, all from Lehigh University.